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wisdombranch

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#182 - If I understand you correctly, in a nutshell, essentially, you… 02/26/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#181 - Give me a formula for ANY self replicating molecule.  [+] (3 new replies) 02/26/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#183 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
hexadeoxynucleotides
#184 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
and my assertion is {Amino acids -----> polymers -----> self replicating polymers ------> more complex self-replicating polymers ------> whatever the next level of complexity is -----> protobiont ----->then bacteria}. And note that hexadeoxynucleotides are like 20-40 nucleotides long
#185 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
20-40 atoms* its 3 nucleotides long
#90 - See now, only the two on the right are appealing to me. 02/26/2015 on Snu Snu +1
#179 - it was a looooooooooooooooooooooooooooong-ass time ago 02/20/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#178 - This means that if all the amino acids formed into proteins…  [+] (1 new reply) 02/20/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
User avatar #179 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]
it was a looooooooooooooooooooooooooooong-ass time ago
#177 - In every life form, save perhaps viruses, there are proteins. …  [+] (8 new replies) 02/20/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#180 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/21/2015) [-]
right, from amino acids to proteins essential to life is a huge leap, the current theory of abiogenesis isn't that amino acids formed proteins but they formed self replicating molecules. These simple molecules were probably not more than 30-40 subunits long, maybe even less and then those that survived produced more of them selves. Pretty analogous of life really. Also those that survived got mutations on them that made them more cooperative of a system. Imagine trying to build a 100 block high tower of bricks out of 1000 bricks through random throwing of bricks. You are suggesting how it worked is you threw 1000 bricks and hoped they made a 100 block high tower and if it didn't you started over but how it actually happened was you threw 1000 bricks, you saw it made a tower say, 15 blocks high out of luck then you picked up the remaining bricks that didn't form a tower and then tried to randomly throw them again but this time kept your 15 blocks high tower.
User avatar #182 - wisdombranch (02/26/2015) [-]
If I understand you correctly, in a nutshell, essentially, your assertion is:

"{Amino acids -----> Proteins} is way too hard. Instead, the current theory is ...the exact same principle and exact same shit: Randomized protein synthesis."
User avatar #181 - wisdombranch (02/26/2015) [-]
Give me a formula for ANY self replicating molecule.
#183 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
hexadeoxynucleotides
#184 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
and my assertion is {Amino acids -----> polymers -----> self replicating polymers ------> more complex self-replicating polymers ------> whatever the next level of complexity is -----> protobiont ----->then bacteria}. And note that hexadeoxynucleotides are like 20-40 nucleotides long
#185 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
20-40 atoms* its 3 nucleotides long
User avatar #178 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]

This means that if all the amino acids formed into proteins and disintegrated at a rate of one every second of those 50 million years, the probability of a Ribonuclease forming in that time is 1 in 10^92.811. Another way of putting this is 1 in 647 million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion.
In addition, in all known life forms, there is a chemical code that dictates, in vast detail, the type of cells within the organism.
[This is a] genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). (Campbell glossary)


This genetic material is called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is comprised of alternating “A-T” and “G-C” pairs, known as “base pairs.” This base-4 code is a single molecule that varies in size depending on the complexity of the organism to which it belongs. Humans have a massive amount of DNA, whereas viruses have astonishingly little. If life was randomly formed from pre-Archean Earth, via abiogenesis, as is understood in Darwin’s Theory of Macroevolution, the DNA found in every cell was also randomly formed. This is a rather improbable occurrence.
To illustrate, the DNA of a simple bacterium will be examined. Though having the simplest DNA, viruses could not have been the first organisms on Earth because they are parasitic and require more complex hosts in order to survive; therefore, we shall ignore them for the moment. M. pneumoniae, a simple bacterium has 840,000 base pairs. (Hoiberg “Bacteria”) The probability of this DNA sample forming randomly from an ocean of preformed base pairs cannot be computed using a normal scientific calculator, unless aided by the “log” function. Because there are only four different kinds of pairs, we need to take the “log” of four and multiply the result by 840,000 to determine the answer.
Log 4 = 0.60206 ||| (0.60206) * 840,000 = 505,730
Therefore, the chance of the DNA of a M. pneumoniae forming randomly from the previously mentioned conditions is 1 in 10^505,730 = 1 in googol^5057 . This extreme improbability suggests that the formation of life was not random.

Bibliography
(Campbell, Neil A. Biology: Concepts & Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. pp. 5, 58)
(Campbell, Neil A. Biology: Concepts & Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Glossary: deoxyribonucleic acid)
(Google Answers. May 27, 2004. Jan 28, 2008 < answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=352789 >)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \Bacteria\The prokaryotic cell\Morphological features\Nucleoid)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \carbon-14 dating)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \dating\Absolute dating\Major methods of isotopic dating\Carbon-14 dating and other cosmogenic methods)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD, Earth’s crust\Table 30: Distribution of Rock Types in Large Structural Units of the Earth’s Crust
Nitrogen group element\Individual nitrogen group elements\Nitrogen\Occurrence and distribution)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \half-life)
(Orgel, Leslie E. “The Origin of Life on Earth.” www.geocities.com . Apr 24, 1997. Cape Canaveral. Jan 28, 2008. < www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/lab/2948/orgel.html >)
(Runcorn S. K. "Planetary Magnetic Field." www.blackwell-synergy.com . Apr 02, 2007. Geophysical Journal International. < www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365- 246X.1968.tb05757.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=gji> Jan 28, 2008)
(Wile, Jay L. Exploring Creation with Biology, 2nd ed. Anderson, IN: Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc., 2004. pp 140-142,150)

(Zimmer, Carl. “Aliens Among Us.” Discover Magazine, July 2007, pp. 62)



This was 1/3 of a essay I did in high school composition class
User avatar #179 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]
it was a looooooooooooooooooooooooooooong-ass time ago
#176 - I don't know, but now I need to look up "Panspermia" 02/17/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#161 - Yeah..... I ran the numbers for a paper in highschool and was,…  [+] (12 new replies) 02/15/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#174 - gangbangtime (02/16/2015) [-]
Doesn't Stephen Hawking think life on earth came from Panspermia?
User avatar #176 - wisdombranch (02/17/2015) [-]
I don't know, but now I need to look up "Panspermia"
#163 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/15/2015) [-]
I would like to see it actually
User avatar #177 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]
In every life form, save perhaps viruses, there are proteins. These proteins are massive molecules that are produced within the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. (Campbell 58) These proteins are comprised of hundreds or even thousands of amino acids. According to Darwin's Theory of Macroevolution, over 50 million years the proteins that formed cells that formed life, as we know it, including us humans, were created.(Zimmer 62) Stanley Miller proved that the conditions of pre-Archean Earth could easily, randomly yield the amino acids necessary for life.
In the early 1950s Stanley L. Miller, working in the laboratory of Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago, did the first experiment designed to clarify the chemical reactions that occurred on the primitive earth. In the flask at the bottom, he created an "ocean" of water, which he heated, forcing water vapor to circulate through the apparatus. The flask at the top contained an "atmosphere" consisting of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2) and the circulating water vapor. Next he exposed the gases to a continuous electrical discharge ("lightning"), causing the gases to interact. Water-soluble products of those reactions then passed through a condenser and dissolved in the mock ocean. The experiment yielded many amino acids and enabled Miller to explain how they had formed. (Orgel)

This idea of protein formation is more than a little improbable. As previously stated, proteins are formed from many amino acids. However, twenty different amino acids are used to support life. For proteins to work correctly, they need specific kinds of amino acids in specific places. If a single amino is out of place, then the protein will not work. So, according to Darwin's Theory of Macroevolution, these proteins originally formed were the result of pure chance. However, though amino acids have been formed easily in scientific experiments trying to mimic the environment of pre-Archean Earth, these experiments have never yielded a single protein. Here is why. The simplest human protein is called "Ribonuclease."(Wile 150) This protein is comprised of 124 amino acids of seventeen different types. Thus, the probability of a Ribonuclease molecule randomly forming from a “soup” of purely necessary amino acids is one in 17^124. Most scientific calculators cannot handle this equation. To navigate around this problem, the "log" function can be used. By taking the "log" of 17, and multiplying the result by 124, the answer, as a power of ten, can be determined.
Log 17 = 1.23045 ||| (1.23045) * 124 = 152.576
Therefore, the probability of a Ribonuclease randomly forming from an ideal amino acid soup is 1 in 10^152.576. The number of atoms in the entire universe is estimated to be less than 10^79.778, with the number of atoms in Earth being far less.(Google Answers) The total number of atoms of Nitrogen, a vital component of amino acids, in the Earth’s crust is 10^44.567. (Hoiberg “Earth’s Crust”; “Nitrogen group element”) If every atom of nitrogen was part of an amino acid that had a single nitrogen atom, and all nitrogen was being used in the effort of producing life, then the equation for the probability of a Ribonuclease forming in the 50 million years, in which life is said to have evolved, is as follows:
Total probability: 1 in 10^152.576
Total Time in seconds: 10^15.198
Total possible Amino Acids: 10^44.567
152.576 — (15.198 + 44.567) =
152.576 — (59.765) = 92.811
#180 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/21/2015) [-]
right, from amino acids to proteins essential to life is a huge leap, the current theory of abiogenesis isn't that amino acids formed proteins but they formed self replicating molecules. These simple molecules were probably not more than 30-40 subunits long, maybe even less and then those that survived produced more of them selves. Pretty analogous of life really. Also those that survived got mutations on them that made them more cooperative of a system. Imagine trying to build a 100 block high tower of bricks out of 1000 bricks through random throwing of bricks. You are suggesting how it worked is you threw 1000 bricks and hoped they made a 100 block high tower and if it didn't you started over but how it actually happened was you threw 1000 bricks, you saw it made a tower say, 15 blocks high out of luck then you picked up the remaining bricks that didn't form a tower and then tried to randomly throw them again but this time kept your 15 blocks high tower.
User avatar #182 - wisdombranch (02/26/2015) [-]
If I understand you correctly, in a nutshell, essentially, your assertion is:

"{Amino acids -----> Proteins} is way too hard. Instead, the current theory is ...the exact same principle and exact same shit: Randomized protein synthesis."
User avatar #181 - wisdombranch (02/26/2015) [-]
Give me a formula for ANY self replicating molecule.
#183 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
hexadeoxynucleotides
#184 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
and my assertion is {Amino acids -----> polymers -----> self replicating polymers ------> more complex self-replicating polymers ------> whatever the next level of complexity is -----> protobiont ----->then bacteria}. And note that hexadeoxynucleotides are like 20-40 nucleotides long
#185 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
20-40 atoms* its 3 nucleotides long
User avatar #178 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]

This means that if all the amino acids formed into proteins and disintegrated at a rate of one every second of those 50 million years, the probability of a Ribonuclease forming in that time is 1 in 10^92.811. Another way of putting this is 1 in 647 million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion.
In addition, in all known life forms, there is a chemical code that dictates, in vast detail, the type of cells within the organism.
[This is a] genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). (Campbell glossary)


This genetic material is called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is comprised of alternating “A-T” and “G-C” pairs, known as “base pairs.” This base-4 code is a single molecule that varies in size depending on the complexity of the organism to which it belongs. Humans have a massive amount of DNA, whereas viruses have astonishingly little. If life was randomly formed from pre-Archean Earth, via abiogenesis, as is understood in Darwin’s Theory of Macroevolution, the DNA found in every cell was also randomly formed. This is a rather improbable occurrence.
To illustrate, the DNA of a simple bacterium will be examined. Though having the simplest DNA, viruses could not have been the first organisms on Earth because they are parasitic and require more complex hosts in order to survive; therefore, we shall ignore them for the moment. M. pneumoniae, a simple bacterium has 840,000 base pairs. (Hoiberg “Bacteria”) The probability of this DNA sample forming randomly from an ocean of preformed base pairs cannot be computed using a normal scientific calculator, unless aided by the “log” function. Because there are only four different kinds of pairs, we need to take the “log” of four and multiply the result by 840,000 to determine the answer.
Log 4 = 0.60206 ||| (0.60206) * 840,000 = 505,730
Therefore, the chance of the DNA of a M. pneumoniae forming randomly from the previously mentioned conditions is 1 in 10^505,730 = 1 in googol^5057 . This extreme improbability suggests that the formation of life was not random.

Bibliography
(Campbell, Neil A. Biology: Concepts & Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. pp. 5, 58)
(Campbell, Neil A. Biology: Concepts & Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Glossary: deoxyribonucleic acid)
(Google Answers. May 27, 2004. Jan 28, 2008 < answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=352789 >)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \Bacteria\The prokaryotic cell\Morphological features\Nucleoid)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \carbon-14 dating)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \dating\Absolute dating\Major methods of isotopic dating\Carbon-14 dating and other cosmogenic methods)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD, Earth’s crust\Table 30: Distribution of Rock Types in Large Structural Units of the Earth’s Crust
Nitrogen group element\Individual nitrogen group elements\Nitrogen\Occurrence and distribution)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \half-life)
(Orgel, Leslie E. “The Origin of Life on Earth.” www.geocities.com . Apr 24, 1997. Cape Canaveral. Jan 28, 2008. < www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/lab/2948/orgel.html >)
(Runcorn S. K. "Planetary Magnetic Field." www.blackwell-synergy.com . Apr 02, 2007. Geophysical Journal International. < www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365- 246X.1968.tb05757.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=gji> Jan 28, 2008)
(Wile, Jay L. Exploring Creation with Biology, 2nd ed. Anderson, IN: Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc., 2004. pp 140-142,150)

(Zimmer, Carl. “Aliens Among Us.” Discover Magazine, July 2007, pp. 62)



This was 1/3 of a essay I did in high school composition class
User avatar #179 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]
it was a looooooooooooooooooooooooooooong-ass time ago
#156 - ******* load of planets out there? Check …  [+] (14 new replies) 02/15/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0
#159 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/15/2015) [-]
No scientific evidence of the actual chance of abiogenesis? CHECK
User avatar #161 - wisdombranch (02/15/2015) [-]
Yeah..... I ran the numbers for a paper in highschool and was, frankly, stunned. I thought I had mis-calculated. Nope. ASSUMING my imputs were APPROPRIATE.... We are the luckiest (by that I mean only) fuckers to exist.... earth was seeded with life.

I just plugged in my external drive, give me a minute to get the DNA biogenesis equation.
#174 - gangbangtime (02/16/2015) [-]
Doesn't Stephen Hawking think life on earth came from Panspermia?
User avatar #176 - wisdombranch (02/17/2015) [-]
I don't know, but now I need to look up "Panspermia"
#163 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/15/2015) [-]
I would like to see it actually
User avatar #177 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]
In every life form, save perhaps viruses, there are proteins. These proteins are massive molecules that are produced within the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. (Campbell 58) These proteins are comprised of hundreds or even thousands of amino acids. According to Darwin's Theory of Macroevolution, over 50 million years the proteins that formed cells that formed life, as we know it, including us humans, were created.(Zimmer 62) Stanley Miller proved that the conditions of pre-Archean Earth could easily, randomly yield the amino acids necessary for life.
In the early 1950s Stanley L. Miller, working in the laboratory of Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago, did the first experiment designed to clarify the chemical reactions that occurred on the primitive earth. In the flask at the bottom, he created an "ocean" of water, which he heated, forcing water vapor to circulate through the apparatus. The flask at the top contained an "atmosphere" consisting of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2) and the circulating water vapor. Next he exposed the gases to a continuous electrical discharge ("lightning"), causing the gases to interact. Water-soluble products of those reactions then passed through a condenser and dissolved in the mock ocean. The experiment yielded many amino acids and enabled Miller to explain how they had formed. (Orgel)

This idea of protein formation is more than a little improbable. As previously stated, proteins are formed from many amino acids. However, twenty different amino acids are used to support life. For proteins to work correctly, they need specific kinds of amino acids in specific places. If a single amino is out of place, then the protein will not work. So, according to Darwin's Theory of Macroevolution, these proteins originally formed were the result of pure chance. However, though amino acids have been formed easily in scientific experiments trying to mimic the environment of pre-Archean Earth, these experiments have never yielded a single protein. Here is why. The simplest human protein is called "Ribonuclease."(Wile 150) This protein is comprised of 124 amino acids of seventeen different types. Thus, the probability of a Ribonuclease molecule randomly forming from a “soup” of purely necessary amino acids is one in 17^124. Most scientific calculators cannot handle this equation. To navigate around this problem, the "log" function can be used. By taking the "log" of 17, and multiplying the result by 124, the answer, as a power of ten, can be determined.
Log 17 = 1.23045 ||| (1.23045) * 124 = 152.576
Therefore, the probability of a Ribonuclease randomly forming from an ideal amino acid soup is 1 in 10^152.576. The number of atoms in the entire universe is estimated to be less than 10^79.778, with the number of atoms in Earth being far less.(Google Answers) The total number of atoms of Nitrogen, a vital component of amino acids, in the Earth’s crust is 10^44.567. (Hoiberg “Earth’s Crust”; “Nitrogen group element”) If every atom of nitrogen was part of an amino acid that had a single nitrogen atom, and all nitrogen was being used in the effort of producing life, then the equation for the probability of a Ribonuclease forming in the 50 million years, in which life is said to have evolved, is as follows:
Total probability: 1 in 10^152.576
Total Time in seconds: 10^15.198
Total possible Amino Acids: 10^44.567
152.576 — (15.198 + 44.567) =
152.576 — (59.765) = 92.811
#180 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/21/2015) [-]
right, from amino acids to proteins essential to life is a huge leap, the current theory of abiogenesis isn't that amino acids formed proteins but they formed self replicating molecules. These simple molecules were probably not more than 30-40 subunits long, maybe even less and then those that survived produced more of them selves. Pretty analogous of life really. Also those that survived got mutations on them that made them more cooperative of a system. Imagine trying to build a 100 block high tower of bricks out of 1000 bricks through random throwing of bricks. You are suggesting how it worked is you threw 1000 bricks and hoped they made a 100 block high tower and if it didn't you started over but how it actually happened was you threw 1000 bricks, you saw it made a tower say, 15 blocks high out of luck then you picked up the remaining bricks that didn't form a tower and then tried to randomly throw them again but this time kept your 15 blocks high tower.
User avatar #182 - wisdombranch (02/26/2015) [-]
If I understand you correctly, in a nutshell, essentially, your assertion is:

"{Amino acids -----> Proteins} is way too hard. Instead, the current theory is ...the exact same principle and exact same shit: Randomized protein synthesis."
User avatar #181 - wisdombranch (02/26/2015) [-]
Give me a formula for ANY self replicating molecule.
#183 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
hexadeoxynucleotides
#184 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
and my assertion is {Amino acids -----> polymers -----> self replicating polymers ------> more complex self-replicating polymers ------> whatever the next level of complexity is -----> protobiont ----->then bacteria}. And note that hexadeoxynucleotides are like 20-40 nucleotides long
#185 - mrdrprofbraeden (02/26/2015) [-]
20-40 atoms* its 3 nucleotides long
User avatar #178 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]

This means that if all the amino acids formed into proteins and disintegrated at a rate of one every second of those 50 million years, the probability of a Ribonuclease forming in that time is 1 in 10^92.811. Another way of putting this is 1 in 647 million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion.
In addition, in all known life forms, there is a chemical code that dictates, in vast detail, the type of cells within the organism.
[This is a] genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). (Campbell glossary)


This genetic material is called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is comprised of alternating “A-T” and “G-C” pairs, known as “base pairs.” This base-4 code is a single molecule that varies in size depending on the complexity of the organism to which it belongs. Humans have a massive amount of DNA, whereas viruses have astonishingly little. If life was randomly formed from pre-Archean Earth, via abiogenesis, as is understood in Darwin’s Theory of Macroevolution, the DNA found in every cell was also randomly formed. This is a rather improbable occurrence.
To illustrate, the DNA of a simple bacterium will be examined. Though having the simplest DNA, viruses could not have been the first organisms on Earth because they are parasitic and require more complex hosts in order to survive; therefore, we shall ignore them for the moment. M. pneumoniae, a simple bacterium has 840,000 base pairs. (Hoiberg “Bacteria”) The probability of this DNA sample forming randomly from an ocean of preformed base pairs cannot be computed using a normal scientific calculator, unless aided by the “log” function. Because there are only four different kinds of pairs, we need to take the “log” of four and multiply the result by 840,000 to determine the answer.
Log 4 = 0.60206 ||| (0.60206) * 840,000 = 505,730
Therefore, the chance of the DNA of a M. pneumoniae forming randomly from the previously mentioned conditions is 1 in 10^505,730 = 1 in googol^5057 . This extreme improbability suggests that the formation of life was not random.

Bibliography
(Campbell, Neil A. Biology: Concepts & Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. pp. 5, 58)
(Campbell, Neil A. Biology: Concepts & Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Glossary: deoxyribonucleic acid)
(Google Answers. May 27, 2004. Jan 28, 2008 < answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=352789 >)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \Bacteria\The prokaryotic cell\Morphological features\Nucleoid)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \carbon-14 dating)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \dating\Absolute dating\Major methods of isotopic dating\Carbon-14 dating and other cosmogenic methods)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD, Earth’s crust\Table 30: Distribution of Rock Types in Large Structural Units of the Earth’s Crust
Nitrogen group element\Individual nitrogen group elements\Nitrogen\Occurrence and distribution)
(Hoiberg, Dale H. Brittanica 2002 CD \half-life)
(Orgel, Leslie E. “The Origin of Life on Earth.” www.geocities.com . Apr 24, 1997. Cape Canaveral. Jan 28, 2008. < www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/lab/2948/orgel.html >)
(Runcorn S. K. "Planetary Magnetic Field." www.blackwell-synergy.com . Apr 02, 2007. Geophysical Journal International. < www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365- 246X.1968.tb05757.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=gji> Jan 28, 2008)
(Wile, Jay L. Exploring Creation with Biology, 2nd ed. Anderson, IN: Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc., 2004. pp 140-142,150)

(Zimmer, Carl. “Aliens Among Us.” Discover Magazine, July 2007, pp. 62)



This was 1/3 of a essay I did in high school composition class
User avatar #179 - wisdombranch (02/20/2015) [-]
it was a looooooooooooooooooooooooooooong-ass time ago
#122 - here is another one, at least for Murica. 02/15/2015 on Re-Evaluate your entire... 0

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Total unique items point value: 2050 / Total items point value: 2450
What do you think? Give us your opinion. Anonymous comments allowed.
#25 - anonexplains (05/08/2013) [-]
[url deleted]
[url deleted]
[url deleted]
[url deleted]
[url deleted]
User avatar #21 - GabeAsher (05/07/2013) [-]
hey man, I was just wondering, if you dont play items anymore, is it cool if I get yours? :)

I understand if you say no, just figured I would ask :P
User avatar #22 to #21 - wisdombranch (05/07/2013) [-]
some of them.... how?
User avatar #23 to #22 - GabeAsher (05/08/2013) [-]
I send a trade request, you get a notification, click on go to items interface, go to the tab that says requests received, click on my request and then do the captcha and accept :D
Just tell me which ones you dont wanna give away so I can make the trade :P
Thank you by the way :)
User avatar #24 to #23 - wisdombranch (05/08/2013) [-]
Trade request has not been received.
User avatar #16 - SonicTeam (04/17/2013) [-]
Question: Did you add me cause you saw my erotic?
User avatar #17 to #16 - wisdombranch (04/17/2013) [-]
no, which one?
User avatar #18 to #17 - SonicTeam (04/17/2013) [-]
Wait...Nvm. You're Zach from FB.
User avatar #19 to #18 - wisdombranch (04/17/2013) [-]
yeah, sup?
User avatar #20 to #19 - SonicTeam (04/17/2013) [-]
I forgot it was you. LOL. So why the add?
#1 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
Your virginity... I have it.
#2 to #1 - wisdombranch (08/24/2012) [-]
yes, darling, you do and I am a little disconcerted by it.
#3 to #2 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
I am sorry you feel that way.
#4 to #3 - wisdombranch (08/24/2012) [-]
Nevermind....wanna go again?
#5 to #4 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
I am going to sleep.
#6 to #5 - wisdombranch (08/24/2012) [-]
Should have figured my first time would be ... unimpressive.
#8 to #6 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
<-- oh btw guy just in case you didn't know.

Don't want any unpleasant revelations.
#12 to #11 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
Successful trap?
#13 to #12 - wisdombranch (08/24/2012) [-]
yes... good night.
#14 to #13 - wisdombranch (08/24/2012) [-]
just kidding
User avatar #15 to #14 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
Oh well.
User avatar #10 to #8 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
<----- *oh btw, guy, just...
#7 to #6 - User (08/24/2012) [-]
My first time was full of compliments... You could always lie and act like you still have your virginity.
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