Upload
Login or register

cadencee

Last status update:
-
Date Signed Up:3/01/2012
FunnyJunk Career Stats
Content Ranking:#3735
Comment Ranking:#6684
Highest Content Rank:#1539
Highest Comment Rank:#4101
Content Thumbs: 10451 total,  12233 ,  1782
Comment Thumbs: 2096 total,  3002 ,  906
Content Level Progress: 25% (25/100)
Level 204 Content: Comedic Genius → Level 205 Content: Comedic Genius
Comment Level Progress: 94% (94/100)
Level 216 Comments: Comedic Genius → Level 217 Comments: Comedic Genius
Subscribers:2
Content Views:450642
Times Content Favorited:701 times
Total Comments Made:1677
FJ Points:12136
Favorite Tags: the (3) | League of Legend (2) | Religion (2)

Text Posts

  • Views: 62604
    Thumbs Up 2806 Thumbs Down 535 Total: +2271
    Comments: 186
    Favorites: 195
    Uploaded: 08/20/12
    Epic troll is epic :) Epic troll is epic :)
  • Views: 83397
    Thumbs Up 2622 Thumbs Down 363 Total: +2259
    Comments: 209
    Favorites: 95
    Uploaded: 04/28/12
    They said i could be anything... They said i could be anything...
  • Views: 44365
    Thumbs Up 1569 Thumbs Down 104 Total: +1465
    Comments: 54
    Favorites: 52
    Uploaded: 01/06/13
    Women Women
  • Views: 40905
    Thumbs Up 1416 Thumbs Down 136 Total: +1280
    Comments: 154
    Favorites: 202
    Uploaded: 01/02/13
    A few facts of life A few facts of life
  • Views: 20147
    Thumbs Up 819 Thumbs Down 62 Total: +757
    Comments: 14
    Favorites: 35
    Uploaded: 06/25/12
    Coloured people Coloured people
  • Views: 20366
    Thumbs Up 775 Thumbs Down 43 Total: +732
    Comments: 54
    Favorites: 21
    Uploaded: 04/30/12
    HG vs Twilight HG vs Twilight
  • Views: 10175
    Thumbs Up 181 Thumbs Down 46 Total: +135
    Comments: 10
    Favorites: 12
    Uploaded: 01/06/13
    Made me laugh Made me laugh
  • Views: 9352
    Thumbs Up 117 Thumbs Down 12 Total: +105
    Comments: 5
    Favorites: 13
    Uploaded: 04/29/12
    Maybe i should watch kids shows more Maybe i should watch kids shows...
  • Views: 6008
    Thumbs Up 106 Thumbs Down 9 Total: +97
    Comments: 1
    Favorites: 4
    Uploaded: 01/06/13
    Not bad Not bad
  • Views: 4933
    Thumbs Up 102 Thumbs Down 12 Total: +90
    Comments: 5
    Favorites: 6
    Uploaded: 05/01/12
    Like a boss Like a boss
  • Views: 2813
    Thumbs Up 30 Thumbs Down 5 Total: +25
    Comments: 0
    Favorites: 0
    Uploaded: 01/18/13
    Glass door prank Glass door prank
  • Views: 1692
    Thumbs Up 25 Thumbs Down 13 Total: +12
    Comments: 2
    Favorites: 3
    Uploaded: 09/09/12
    Bringing the party. Bringing the party.

latest user's comments

#17 - I hated the designs idk. Personal opinion of course. All the e… 11 hours ago on Pokemon over time -1
#14 - oh true, yeah idk i just downloaded the ones after ruby and pl… 13 hours ago on Pokemon over time -2
#333 - >> #331 Yeah go for it, I'd like to hear it b…  [+] (2 new replies) 15 hours ago on Religion Board 2.0 0
User avatar
#334 - zlane (14 hours ago) [-]
thought i'd warn you because my summary is very lengthy. it's going to span 2 comments.

to summarize, the argument is about the functional genome shrinking as a result of deleterious mutations, which replace functional sequences with random noise faster than new sequences can be created. evolution on a grand scale would require most of the genome to be junk( like 95%+), but there is strong evidence suggesting this is not the case
...

around 20% of our genome is sequence specific(1); this DNA must have its letters in a mostly-specific sequence to function. we get 60-100 mutations per generation(2) meaning we get 12-20 mutations that replace functional elements with random noise each generation.

(1)
ENCODE studies
"Our results suggest that between 200 and 300 Mb (6.7%–10.0%) of the human genome is under functional constraint. This estimate was arrived at as follows. First, the amount of human genome under functional constraint is at least 200 Mb, the upper-bound estimate for human and horse made in a divergence regime associated with conservative estimations, according to our simulations. Second, the indicative higher estimate of 300 Mb was obtained by extrapolating the trend for lower-bound estimates involving human ... ***methods for inferring quantities of functional DNA rest upon the hypothesis that in functional sequence most nucleotide changes are detrimental, causing such changes to be purged from the species' populations, which results in evolutionarily conserved sequence***. ... the true quantity of functional material in mammalian genomes may be around 300 Mb (10% of the human genome) ... these values may underestimate the true level of constraint"
Massive turnover of functional sequence in human and other mammalian genomes, Genome Research, 2010

"all ENCODE classes display evidence of negative selection in these unique-to-primate elements. Furthermore, even with our most conservative estimate of functional elements...at a minimum 20% (17% from protein binding and 2.9% protein coding gene exons) of the genome participates in these specific functions, with the likely figure significantly higher." An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome, Nature, 2012

(functional constraint = the DNA is intolerant of mutation because it causes reduction in its ability to carry out the function encoded.)

adding to this number:
"the nucleic acids that make up RNA connect to each other in very specific ways, which force RNA molecules to twist and loop into a variety of complicated 3D structures"
requiring a specific sequence.
www.garvan.org.au/news/news/new-insight-into-the-human-genome-through-the-lens-of-evolution

a high degree of nucleotide specificity is required in protein folding:
"the probability that a variant retains its fold and function declines exponentially with the number of random substitutions, and random jumps in sequence space uncover mostly inactive proteins"
www.che.caltech.edu/groups/fha/publications/Romero_NRMCB2009.pdf

and in nucleosome winding and positioning:
"As such, histone octamers show a considerable level of DNA sequence specificity”
“DNA sequence shows a striking 10-bp periodicity of bendable di-nucleotides throughout nearly the entire 147-bp region23. The exact position of the histone octamer with respect to the ~10 bp helical repeat is termed “rotational positioning, and thus, **DNA sequence is a critical determinant of how nucleosomes are rotationally positioned
**”
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3740156/

when a nucleotide is substituted in this region of the genome, specific functions are degraded. these changes can make fold slightly less stable, weaken a binding site, affect RNA transcript, or have some other effect that could make a protein less efficient at doing its job. think of these changes as rust on a car.

(2)
sandwalk.blogspot.com/2013/03/estimating-human-mutation-rate-direct.html
User avatar
#335 - zlane (14 hours ago) [-]
(Part II)
evolution is very good at preserving these changes rather than getting rid of them:

-multiple bad mutations per generation means that ns can only select organisms that have more of these mutations than their parents. see this video for a very simple illustration of this concept www.youtube.com/watch?v=SrIDjvpx7w4

-these changes don’t usually have any significant (reproductive)fitness repercussions, making them blind to selection, as natural selection operates on phenotype

-genetic redundancy ensures that any fitness repercussions are mitigated; even if an entire gene knocked out(as per ENCODE’s loss-of function tests) there are backup systems that compensate for this.overlapping function serves as a protective mechanism.

ENCODE 2012:
"Loss-of-function tests can also be buffered by functional redundancy, such that double or triple disruptions are required for a phenotypic consequence. Consistent with redundant, contextual, or subtle functions, the deletion of large and highly conserved genomic segments sometimes has no discernible organismal phenotype, and seemingly debilitating mutations in genes thought to be indispensible have been found in the human population"

also, natural selection is blind to the degradation of redundant backup systems that are not used

-adding on to this, loss-of-function is actually commonly selected FOR rather than against. as Michael Behe puts it, "The first rule of adaptive evolution is Break or blunt any functional coded element whose loss would yield a net fitness gain." www.lehigh.edu/bio/Faculty/Behe/PDF/QRB_paper.pdf

another example outside this study:
www.genetics.org/content/168/4/1817.full
metabolic pathways in yeast “such as those involved in amino acid synthesis” weren’t necessary in the fitness landscape of growth assay and “(may have) represented a metabolic load on a cell and cause reduced growth in complete medium” and so the reduction of this function was “beneficial to diploid mitotic growth rate”.

-population geneticists agree that mammals evolved mostly by genetic drift, meaning that most mutations fix by chance rather than selection. as T. Ryan Gregory puts it “we would expect that natural selection would be powerless to stop the accumulation of certain genomic alterations over the entirety of metazoan evolution."

what does this imply?

given millions of years of evolution, you would expect the genome to be almost entirely junk. a genome heavily influenced by random drift should reflect this on the molecular level, and this is exactly what evolutionists predicted-

Susumu Ohno "At the most, only 6% of our DNA base sequences is utilized as functional units" .

Richard Dawkins "95 per cent... of the genome might as well not be there".

Dan Graur "there exists a misconception among functional genomicists that the evolutionary process can produce a genome that is mostly functional"

and many agree that if the genome is as functionally constrained as the ENCODE project suggests, there's a problem

T. Ryan Gregory "if the rate at which these mutations are generated is higher than the rate at which natural selection can weed them out, then the collective genomes of the organisms in the species will suffer a meltdown as the total number of deleterious alleles increases with each generation... This is incompatible with the view that 80% of the genome is functional in the sense implied by ENCODE."

Dan Graur:
" If encode_NIH is right, each of us should have 7000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 children"

"If the human genome is indeed devoid of junk DNA as implied by the ENCODE project, then a long, undirected evolutionary process cannot explain the human genome."

PZ Myers "(ENCODE) just blithely postulated orders of magnitude more functioning elements in the genome than could be tolerated by any calculation of the genetic load"
#181 - Im not going to dedicate my life to bringing down the very fou… 16 hours ago on Straight Up Caught Comp. 25 0
#7 - I ******* hated every starter pokemon after Ruby/Saphire/Emera…  [+] (5 new replies) 16 hours ago on Pokemon over time +4
User avatar
#18 - edgeworthy (10 hours ago) [-]
Even iron penguin?
User avatar
#15 - zioken (11 hours ago) [-]
Even Diamond/Pearl starters? Piplup and Turtwig were pretty nice, everything after that though eh can't say I disagree
User avatar
#17 - cadencee (11 hours ago) [-]
I hated the designs idk. Personal opinion of course. All the earlier generation starters had really cool designs. I just found the later ones underwhelming to outright gay af.
User avatar
#12 - huszti (13 hours ago) [-]
had to be black 2 since pre-gen5 pokemon weren't available in black/white before beating the elite 4.

also the gen 4 starters and greninja are amazing
User avatar
#14 - cadencee (13 hours ago) [-]
oh true, yeah idk i just downloaded the ones after ruby and played them on emulators
#65 - Because advocating it in any sense is advocating it in every s…  [+] (1 new reply) 16 hours ago on 'Murica! +2
#179 - anon (6 hours ago) [-]
"People die in the margins." -Some guy i don't remember the name of or even know if he's real
#324 - Let us start with the easiest of which then. Evoluti…  [+] (1 new reply) 07/22/2016 on Religion Board 2.0 0
User avatar
#331 - zlane (07/23/2016) [-]
i believe in evolution to an extent. i accept the fact that "microevolution" and specialization occur.

rapid diversification is an undeniable fact. i know that allele shuffling and strong selection pressures can rapidly change the phenotype of a population, as we've seen with dogs. but evolution on a grand scale requires more than just different frequencies of existing alleles or changes involving loss of function. i think there are some barriers to be faced in extrapolating observed evolution to a grand scale, and i'd like to discuss them.

my main argument is the genetic load argument, also known as the genetic entropy argument. would you mind if i posted a really long explanation?
#323 - Okay so something that I wish to address here is that I do not… 07/22/2016 on Religion Board 2.0 0
#100 - Disclaimer: I'm not a vegan The conditions that anima…  [+] (2 new replies) 07/22/2016 on Straight Up Caught Comp. 25 +1
#143 - nominalgain (07/22/2016) [-]
Do something about it then.
User avatar
#181 - cadencee (16 hours ago) [-]
Im not going to dedicate my life to bringing down the very foundations of modern society. I observe corruption and seek to understand the why and how. Understanding an issue is not the same as having a solution. It's all so deeply ingrained that reformation would take generations and who is to say that the world would be any better off as a result?
#320 - I have several topics I would like to tackle. 1) God'…  [+] (3 new replies) 07/22/2016 on Religion Board 2.0 0
User avatar
#322 - zlane (07/22/2016) [-]
sounds good. i'm fine with discussing any of those topics


to answer your question yes, i am a young earth creationist
User avatar
#324 - cadencee (07/22/2016) [-]
Let us start with the easiest of which then.

Evolution.

Evolution is scientifically substantiated time after time, the very existence of dogs and their many breeds show a controlled form evolution. Intelligent selection as opposed to natural selection. How can one as logical and well read as yourself dismiss such a well grounded and justified theory?
User avatar
#331 - zlane (07/23/2016) [-]
i believe in evolution to an extent. i accept the fact that "microevolution" and specialization occur.

rapid diversification is an undeniable fact. i know that allele shuffling and strong selection pressures can rapidly change the phenotype of a population, as we've seen with dogs. but evolution on a grand scale requires more than just different frequencies of existing alleles or changes involving loss of function. i think there are some barriers to be faced in extrapolating observed evolution to a grand scale, and i'd like to discuss them.

my main argument is the genetic load argument, also known as the genetic entropy argument. would you mind if i posted a really long explanation?

channels owned

Subscribe theistic-debates